Unique Geography Notes हिंदी में

Unique Geography Notes in Hindi (भूगोल नोट्स) वेबसाइट के माध्यम से दुनिया भर के उन छात्रों और अध्ययन प्रेमियों को काफी मदद मिलेगी, जिन्हें भूगोल के बारे में जानकारी और ज्ञान इकट्ठा करने में कई कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता है। इस वेबसाइट पर नियमित रूप से सभी प्रकार के नोट्स लगातार विषय विशेषज्ञों द्वारा प्रकाशित करने का काम जारी है।

MA का नोट्स SEMESTER4

MA का नोट्स SEMESTER4

 MA का नोट्स SEMESTER4

            Unique Geography Notes वेबसाइट पर MA/PG भूगोल का सम्पूर्ण सिलेबस का सरल एवं आसान हिंदी भाषा में भूगोल के विद्वानों द्वारा तैयार नोट्स उपलब्ध है। यह नोट्स विभिन्न विश्वविद्यालयों जैसे-मगध गया, वीर कुँवर सिंह आरा, पाटलिपुत्रा पटना, मुंगेर, पूर्णिया, मौलाना मजहरूल हक, बी० आर० अंबेडकर मुजफ्फरपुर, ललित नारायण मिथिला दरभंगा, नालन्दा खुला (Open), जयप्रकाश छपरा, तिलका माँझी भागलपुर, विनोवा भावे हजारीबाग, सिद्धू कान्हू दुमका, बी० एन० मंडल, राँची, BHU, JNU, ALLAHABAD, लखनऊ, गोरखपुर इत्यादि सभी विश्वविद्यालय के लिए U.G.C. के नवीनतम पाठ्यक्रम पर आधारित  सैद्धांतिक परीक्षाओं के लिए काफी उपयोगी है।

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 Syllabus के साथ नोट्स भी एक बार जरुर पढ़ें 

Urban Geography

Definition and Scope of urban geography;

⇒ Development of urban geography in India;

⇒ Urban ecology and Urban System;

Basis of urban functions and functional classification of towns;

⇒ Rank-Size Rule and Primate City;

Urban hierarchy;

⇒ Million Cities and Mega Cities;

⇒ Concept of Megalopolis and Metropolitan regions;

⇒ Concept of urban morphology;

⇒ Theories of urban landuse-

⇒ Burgess,

⇒  Hoyt,

⇒  Harris and

⇒ Ullman;

⇒ Concept and characteristic of CBD;

⇒ Conurbation, Urban Agglomeration in context of India;

⇒ Trend of Urbanization in India and the World;

⇒ Concept of City region;

Concept of Umland;

Rural urban fringe;

Urban problems with reference to slums;

⇒ Urban poverty

⇒ Urban planning policies in India;

⇒ Smart city concept

Political Geography

Meaning and scope of Political Geography;

⇒ Approaches to Political Geography: Functional and Unified Field Theory Approaches;

⇒ Geopolitics: Classical Geopolitics and Critical Geopolitics;

⇒ Geopolitical World Order: Origin and Cessation of cold war;

⇒ Global Strategic Views: H. J. Mackinder. N G Spykman;

⇒ Geopolitics of Asia-Pacific;

⇒ Concept of Nation and State;

⇒ Land-Locked States;

Frontiers and Boundaries;

⇒ Maritime Boundaries;

⇒ Changing Political map of India: State re-organization;

⇒ Geographical Bases of Indian Federalism;

⇒ River water Disputes International and National;

⇒ Sino-Indian Border Dispute Kashmir Problem;

⇒ Geopolitics of Indian Ocean: Sino Indian Rivalry Regionalism in India

⇒ Geopolitical codes of India;

Population Geography

⇒ Nature and Scope of Population Geography;

⇒ Historical development of Population Geography;

⇒ Relationship Demography;

⇒ Sources of Population Data: The Census, vital registration and other sources;

Population distribution; Growth and determinants: Pre-historic, ancient, medieval and modern period;

Theories of Population Growth: –


Marx and

Demographic Transition;

⇒ Population Dynamics: Fertility-measurement;

⇒ Mortality measurement, determinants and distribution;

⇒ Migration: Brief history,

⇒ trends and pattern of international; migration, migration in India,

⇒ Indian Diaspora.

⇒ Population Regions: Typology of population regions,

⇒ Ackerman scheme of population resource region;

⇒ Human security economic, food and health.

⇒ Growth and distribution of population in India;

⇒ Population composition of India;

⇒ Internal migration in India;

Trends of urbanization;

Urban problems;

Geology of India

⇒ Definition, scope and function of Geology;

⇒ Principles of correlation;

⇒ Standard Stratgraphic scale;

⇒ Indian Stratigraphic scale;

⇒ Origin, geographical distribution and lithological characteristics of Dharwar system, Vindhyan system, Gondwana system and Deccan Lava system;

⇒ Classification, mode of occurrence and distribution of the following minerals with special reference to India Iron ore, Mica, Bauxite and Copper;

⇒ Classification mode of occurrence and distribution of energy resources in India: Coal, Petroleum, Uranium and Thorium;

⇒ Rocks and mineral association, form, structure and classification of igneous rocks,

⇒ Origin and types of sedimentary rocks;

⇒ Process of metamorphism, Types and characteristics of metamorphic rocks;

Settlement Geography

⇒ Meaning and Scope of Settlement Geography;

⇒ Development of Settlement Geography in India;

⇒ Evolution of Settlement in the Middle Ganga Valley;

Types of Rural settlement in India;

⇒ Old Sites of Settlements and Nomenclature;

⇒ Development of Different forms of Rural settlements;

⇒  Morphological features of Rural Settlements;

Problems of rural settlements;

⇒ Rural house types in different geographical environment in India;

⇒ Hierarchy of settlements;

⇒ Rural-Urban continuum

⇒ Rural Service centres;

⇒ Locational and functional features of urban settlements;

⇒ Morphological features of Indian cities;

⇒ Problems of Indian urban centres;

⇒ Problems of slums in India;

⇒ Planning of Rural settlements;

Planning of urban settlements;

⇒ Metropolitan region;

⇒ Planned urban centres of India;

Advance Cartography

⇒ Brief history of cartography and its present status;

⇒ Fundamentals of computer based cartography and its application;

⇒Thematic maps-types and their use;

 Mathematical construction and characteristics of the following map projections-

⇒ Conical Equal- Area with one standard parallel (Lambert’s V);

⇒ Gnomomic projection (Equatorial Case);

⇒ Stereographic projection (Equatorial Case);

⇒ Cassini’s Projection;

⇒ Principles of triangulation Survey: Measurement of base-line in triangulation survey;

Definition and characteristics of the following astronomical terms-

⇒ Azimuth, Right Ascension, Hour Angle, Star at elongation, Altitude, Declination;

⇒ Brief history and basic principle of Photogrammetry;

⇒ Types and scales of aerial photographs;

⇒ Interpretation of aerial photographs;

Brief history of satellite remote sensing;

Concept of remote sensing;

⇒ Development of remote sensing in India;

⇒ Elements of the interpretation of satellite imageries;

Regional Planning and Rural Development

⇒ Regional Planning: Concept, Merits and Limitation

⇒ Planning Process-Sectoral, Temporal and Spatial Dimensions;

⇒ Concept of Planning Region and Methods for Delineation of Regions;

⇒ Special Purpose Planning Regions in India;

⇒ River Valley Regions;

⇒ Metropolitan Region;

⇒ Problem Regions-Hilly Regions, Tribal Regions;

⇒ Indicators of Development;

⇒ Regional disparities in India;

⇒ Need for Regional Planning in India;

⇒ Regional Development in India-Problems and Prospects;

⇒ Concept of Multi Level Planning;

⇒ Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions in Rural Development;

⇒ Defining Development and Rural Development;

⇒ Gandhian approach to rural development;

⇒ Area Based Approach to Rural Development;

⇒ Drought Prone Area Programme;


⇒ Target Group Approach: SJSY, MGNREGA, Jan Dhan Yojana and PURA;

⇒ Provision of Services- Physical and Socio-Economic Access to Elementary Education and Primary Health Care and Micro Credit;

Geography of Bihar

⇒ Historical Account of Bihar as a State;

⇒ Geological Formation and Landforms, Physiographic Divisions, Drainage, Soils;

⇒ River Valley Projects: Gandak, Kosi and Sone;

⇒ Climate: Regional Variation in Rainfall and Temperature;

⇒ Seasonal Variation of Rainfall and Temperature;

⇒ Flood and Drought Prone Areas;

⇒ Wet Land Areas;

⇒ Landuse and Agriculture: Landuse Pattern, Agricultural Infrastructure, Agricultural Seasons, Food Crop, Cash Crop, Development and Prospect of Horticulture, Aqua-culture, Floriculture, Herbal Plants, Pisciculture;

⇒ Agricultural Regions;

⇒ Industries: Agro Based Industries,

⇒ Small and Cottage Industries;

⇒ Prospects of Food and Fruit Processing Industries;

⇒ Industrial Regions;

⇒ Population and Settlement: Population Attributes-Growth, Distribution, Occupation, Age and Sex Ratio,

⇒ Evolution of Settlement: Types and Pattern,

⇒ Morphological Features;

⇒ Rural Dwellers;

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