Unique Geography Notes हिंदी में

Unique Geography Notes in Hindi (भूगोल नोट्स) वेबसाइट के माध्यम से दुनिया भर के उन छात्रों और अध्ययन प्रेमियों को काफी मदद मिलेगी, जिन्हें भूगोल के बारे में जानकारी और ज्ञान इकट्ठा करने में कई कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ता है। इस वेबसाइट पर नियमित रूप से सभी प्रकार के नोट्स लगातार विषय विशेषज्ञों द्वारा प्रकाशित करने का काम जारी है।

7. BA का नोट्स Semester/PaperVII

BA का नोट्स Semester/PaperVII

BA का नोट्स Semester/PaperVII

              Unique Geography Notes वेबसाइट पर BA(Hons./Gen./Pass) भूगोल का सम्पूर्ण सिलेबस का सरल एवं आसान हिंदी भाषा में भूगोल के विद्वानों द्वारा तैयार नोट्स उपलब्ध है। यह नोट्स विभिन्न विश्वविद्यालयों जैसे-मगध गया, वीर कुँवर सिंह आरा, पाटलिपुत्रा पटना, मुंगेर, पूर्णिया, मौलाना मजहरूल हक, बी० आर० अंबेडकर मुजफ्फरपुर, ललित नारायण मिथिला दरभंगा, नालन्दा खुला (Open), जयप्रकाश छपरा, तिलका माँझी भागलपुर, विनोवा भावे हजारीबाग, सिद्धू कान्हू दुमका, बी० एन० मंडल, राँची, BHU, JNU, ALLAHABAD, लखनऊ, गोरखपुर इत्यादि सभी विश्वविद्यालय के लिए U.G.C. के नवीनतम पाठ्यक्रम पर आधारित  सैद्धांतिक परीक्षाओं के लिए काफी उपयोगी है।

Syllabus के साथ नोट्स भी एक बार जरुर पढ़ें

BA का नोट्स Semester/PaperVII 

Elective Paper

(Group A) Population Geography

⇒ Meaning, scope of population geography,

⇒ Science of Demography,

⇒ Recent growth with special reference to developed and trends of Population developing countries,

⇒ Sources of Population data,

⇒ Methods of Population forecasting.

⇒ Dynamics of population change- fertility, Mortality;

⇒ National and International migration,

⇒ Demographic transition and optimum population;

⇒ Distribution and growth patterns of world population problems caused by  differential population policy in India;

⇒ Population composition- Occupation, literacy, age and sex, Rural urban composition;

⇒ Growth of India’s Population distribution and density,

⇒ Rural-urban movement of population,

⇒ Problems of urbanization,

⇒ Urban- Population characteristic in India;

(Group B) Geology of India

⇒ Scope and function of Geology,

⇒ Standard Stratigraphical scale;

⇒ Indian Stratigraphical Scale;

⇒ Chronological history of Indian Stratigraphy,

⇒ Minerals Classification,

⇒ Mode of occurrence and distribution of Iron,copper, mica, manganese, coal petroleum, atomic minerals;

⇒ Petrological characteristics,

⇒ Classification distribution and economic importance of Dharwar, Vindhyan, Gondwana Deccan, Lava and Tertiarysystems, Cudappa;

⇒ Classification of rooks- Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks,

⇒ Metamorphism;

⇒ Geological Evolution of Himalayas;

⇒ Chotanagpur, Rajmahal Highland, Deccanlava, Aravali;


⇒ Meaning and scope of land use and agricultural geography;

⇒ History of land use Land use survey of England;

⇒ World Land use Survey Pattern of Land Use in India;

⇒ Factors of Land use: Physical and Cultural;

⇒ Land capability,

⇒ Classification of Population and land resource requirements;

⇒ Origin and History of agriculture,

⇒ Diffusion of commercial grainfarming;

⇒ Plantation: Irrigation and Fertilizers.

⇒Types of farming-Subsistence farming,

⇒ Commercial grain farming plantation agriculture,

⇒ Dairy farming.

⇒ Development of agriculture in India.

⇒ Crop-combination in India.

⇒ Agricultural regions of India.

⇒ Agricultural planning in India.

⇒ Agriculture and food supply in India.


⇒ Definition of astronomical terms and their relations.

⇒Determination of latitude with the help of meridian altitude and solar time, sidereal time, equation of time;

⇒ Principles and nature of map projections.

Mathematical construction Properties and use of the following map projections (but not co-ordinates)-

⇒ Zenithal-equal area,

⇒ Gnomonic,

⇒ Conical,

⇒ Simple conical projection with one standard parallel,

⇒ Bonre’s projection,

⇒ Constant of cone.

⇒ Cylindrical-equal area and

⇒ Mercator’s.

⇒ Acquaintance with Theodolite,

⇒ Sextant,

⇒ principle of determination of shape and size of the earth,

⇒ Scale and their types

⇒ Scale of sphere and cube,

⇒ Scale or circle and square

Mechanism for the construction of maps and Atlas.

⇒ Symbols.

⇒ Format of map.

⇒ Survey of India map,

⇒ Modern techniques of map making.

⇒ Photogrammetry and interpretation of areal photograph.

(Group E) Political Geography

Meaning and Scope of Political Geography.

⇒ Contributions of Ratzel, Haushofer, Mackinder, Mahan and Spikeman.

Concept of state and nation,

⇒ Location, shape and size of the state.

⇒ Capita land core areas,

⇒ Population growth and Size.

⇒ Language and religion.

Distinction between frontiers and boundaries.

⇒ Evolution of boundaries.

⇒ Function of boundaries.

⇒ Delimitation of the territorial water and problems involved.

⇒ Right to passage across straits and narrow areas.


⇒ Unitary system.

⇒ Power Blocks,

⇒ Economic Grouping,

⇒ Political Groupings.

⇒ Tension in the Middle East, South Africa,

⇒ India’s boundary problem

⇒ Political Geography of the Indian Ocean.

⇒ National Integration in India.

(Group F) Regional Planning

⇒ Definition, Scope and content of regional planning,

⇒ Methods and Technique used in regional surveys, Census and sample surveys

⇒ Planning in India,

⇒ Regional imbalances and inequalities in India.

⇒ five years plans,

⇒ Multi-level planning in India.

⇒ Regional Planning in Agriculture,

⇒ Community development projects,

⇒ Green Revolution.

⇒ Integrated rural development program.

⇒ Regional Pattern of industrial development in India.

⇒ Factors of industrial location.

⇒ Rural industrialization,

⇒ Service industries.

⇒ Urbanization in India,

⇒ Central places and growth poles city region.

⇒  Concept and methods of delimitation,

⇒ Metropolitan planning and development.


⇒ Concept and scope of urban geography.

⇒ Origin and Evolution of towns.

⇒ Site and situation,

⇒ Locational classification of towns.

⇒ Urban population growth,

⇒ Structure and characteristics of Indian towns.

⇒ Urban growth concept- Theories of Burgess, Hoyt and Harris Ullman.

⇒ Urban land use,

⇒ Urban functions and functional classification

⇒ Urban morphology.

⇒ Inter- town and town- country relationship,

⇒ City region and umland concept.

⇒ Core and fringe area concept,

⇒ Metropolitan region,

⇒ Conurbation.

⇒ Urban and regional survey planning concept,

⇒ Urban planning, Metropolitan planning and regional survey planning.

⇒  Towns and cities and central placesand growth poles,

⇒ Master plans.


⇒ Definition and scope of Racial and Tribal Geography, its relation with Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology.

⇒ Evolution of man, men’s place among primates, emergence of later man, prehistoric man.

⇒ Concept to trace physical determinants.

⇒ Classification of living races of the world,

⇒ Race and culture,

⇒ Races or prehistoric India.

⇒ Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

⇒ Controversy regarding classification of Indian races.

⇒ Study of the following races- Bushmen, Hottentots.

⇒ Polynesian and Eskimos- their Physical, economic and social characteristics.

⇒ Tribes of India- Habitat, Economy, Society, economic grading tribalorganization, social structure and customs.

⇒ Study of following tribes of Bihar: Munda, Oraon, Santhal their physical, economic, social and political characteristics,

⇒ Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribes of Bihar.


⇒ Environmental geography- concept, scope and approaches,

⇒ Ecology and Ecosystems.

⇒ Man-Environment relationship in Equatorial, Mountain.

⇒ Desert, Coastal and Monsoon regions.

⇒ Environmental programs and Policies- Developed& Developing countries.

⇒ Environmental Problems- Air, Water and Soil Pollution, their causes and impact;

⇒ Redressal of Environmental problems

⇒ Environmental Policy of India;

⇒Govemment’s recent initiatives on environment.

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